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Posts Tagged ‘Enzyme Inhibitors’

Gluten-Free, Sourdough Pita Bread

Makes 8

I’m truly delighted by these little, gluten-free, sourdough flat breads. They puff-up when baked, they’re perfect for pocket sandwiches, and they’re wonderful with hummus!

2 cups mature Gluten-Free Natural Levain Starter Culture

½ cup warm (about 100 degrees F), well, spring, or filtered water

1 ½ cups tapioca flour, plus more for rolling out the dough

1 tablespoon honey

1 tablespoon chia seeds

2 teaspoons xanthan gum

1 ½ cups sorghum flour

1 ½ teaspoons whole, unrefined sea salt

1 teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil

In a large bowl combine the mature starter, warm water, honey, chia seeds, and xanthan gum. Whisk until evenly combined, about 2 minutes. Add ½ cup of the sorghum flour and ½ cup of the tapioca flour at a time. Use a wooden spoon or the dough hook to mix incorporated. Add 1 teaspoon of olive oil. Mix until the oil has been absorbed into the dough, about 1 more minute. Scrape the dough into a ball. Lightly oil the mixing bowl. Turn the dough in the bowl to coat in the oil. Cover tightly. Set to rise in a warm (about 75 degrees F) place for 2 ½-3 hours, until nearly doubled in bulk.

Center the oven rack. Place a cookie sheet or jelly-roll pan in the cold oven. Preheat the oven to 500 degrees F. Use a bench scraper or chef’s knife to cut the dough into eight equal portions. Lightly flour your hands, a work surface, and a rolling pin.  Form the dough into a ball. Flatten and roll into a round that is ¼-inch to 3/8-inch thick and about 6-inches in diameter.

Bake 3-4 breads per batch on the hot cookie sheet. After 3 minutes remove from the oven. Flip each bread. Use the flat side of a metal spatula to press down all of the bubbles in the pita (this actually helps the bubbles to expand). Return to the oven. Bake until puffy and barely browned, about 3-4 more minutes. Stack hot pita breads and wrap in a kitchen towel. This will keep them moist and warm for up to one hour. Serve while still warm. Store cooled pita tightly covered in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.

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Sprouted Gluten-Free Bread

Makes 1 loaf

The extra efforts of sprouting are rewarded by crunchy, tender, sandwich-friendly slices. Once you are familiar with the simple process for sprouting grains and legumes, this bread is rather easy to make. Using a food-processor the sprouts are pureed, then mixed into a gum-free, cane sugar-free, egg-free, dairy-free batter.

1 cup organic brown rice

1/3 cup organic green lentils

clean water (well, spring, or filtered)

sunflower oil

1 ½ cups Gluten-Free All Purpose Flour Mix

3 tablespoons chia seeds

1 tablespoon active dry yeast

1 ½ teaspoons unrefined sea salt, finely ground

3 tablespoons sunflower oil

3 tablespoons maple syrup

To Make Sprouts:

In a one-quart mason jar combine the rice and lentils. Add water until the rice and lentils are covered by about 3 inches. Tightly cover the mouth of the jar with a mesh screen. Store at room temperature (about 68-72 degrees F).

After 12-24 hours pour off and discard the soaking water. Add enough water to cover and rinse the rice and lentils. Pour off and discard the water. Allow the jar to drain, upside down, for several minutes.

Rinse and drain the sprouts 2-3 times every day.  After 2-3 days visible sprouts will emerge. The lentil sprout is unmistakable, but the rice sprout is a tiny speck on one end of the end of the grain.  When the rice and lentils have sprouted, they’re ready to be made into bread (or they can be stored for up to four days in the refrigerator (rinse stored sprouts every other day)).

To Make Bread:

Generously oil a standard (4 ½-inch x 8 ½-inch x 3-inch) loaf pan. Assemble a food processor with the metal blade. Add the sprouts and 1/3 cup of water to the bowl. Pulse until the sprouts resemble chunky nut butter, about 2 minutes. Add the flour, chia seeds, yeast, and salt. Process until well combined. Add the sunflower oil and maple syrup. Process until a smooth batter forms, about 2 more minutes. Scoop into the oiled pan.

Sprouted Gluten-Free Bread, ready to bake

Set in a warm (about 75 degrees F) place until puffed by about two-inches, about 25-30 minutes. Pre-heat the oven to 350 degrees F. Bake until browned on top, about 60-65 minutes. Cool in the pan for 10 minutes. Use a sharp knife to loosen the edges from the pan. Remove from the pan and cool on a rack. Serve thinly sliced.

This pst was shared at Real Food Forager’s Fat Tuesday,  Simply Sugar & Gluten Free’s Slightly Indulgent Tuesday,  Kelly the Kitchen Kop’s Real Food Wednesday, and The Nourishing Gourmet’s Pennywise Platter Thursday.

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Fabulously Frugal, Sprouted Lentils

Makes 4 cups

Dried lentils, soaked and cooked form the basis of many richly flavored but inexpensive dishes throughout the world.  Organic dried lentils cost about $1.30 per pound (one pound is over 2 cups) and soaked lentils roughly triple in quantity once cooked. When lentils are sprouted they triple in volume even before being cooked! Thus, 1 cup of organic dried lentils (less than 65 cents worth) could yield up to 6 cups of sprouted lentil soup. That’s a fabulously frugal!

Use sprouted lentils in any dish where you would normally use dried lentils. When substituting sprouts in a recipe start by reducing the amount of dried lentils called for by 1/4. Some of my favorite lentil dishes are Dal (Indian lentil soup), Lentil Salad from Nourishing Traditions, and Lentil Pecan Patties from the Moosewood Cookbook.

1 cup whole, organic lentils

clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

Add the lentils to a wide mouth mason jar. Cover with 2 inches of water. Cover tightly with the lid. Store in a warm (about 72-75 degrees F) place. Twelve to 24 hours later replace the mason lid with a sprouting screen. Drain the soaking water from the lentils. Add more water to cover the lentils. Swirl the jar to thoroughly rinse the soaked lentils. Drain and discard all of the water from the jar. Invert the jar over a small bowl for 5-10 minutes to allow any remaining water to drain out. Thoroughly rinse and drain the lentils 2-3 times each day until you see a small sprout emerge, about 2-3 days.

When the sprout emerges the lentils can be cooked immediately or refrigerated for future use. To use immediately, cook the lentils according to your recipe. Be sure to skim any film that accumulates on top of the cooking water. To store sprouted lentils replace the sprouting screen with a mason lid. Store tightly covered in the refrigerator for up to 4 days. Rinse the refrigerated sprouts every other day using the sprouting screen. Remember to let the sprouts drain over a small bowl for 5-10 minutes, then cap tightly and return to the refrigerator.

This post was shared on Real Food Forager’s Fat Tuesday , Simply Sugar & Gluten Free’s Slightly Indulgent Tuesday, Kelly the Kitchen Kop’s Real Food Wednesday, Mind, Body, and Sole’s  Wildcrafting Wednesday  and Nourishing Gourmet’s Pennywise Platter Thursday blog hops.

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Gluten-Free Third Bread

Makes 1 loaf

This bread is made with a combination of three, whole-grain, gluten-free flours – thus each flour is one-third of the bread!  Soaking the flours overnight increases the digestibility (and palatability) of the whole grains. This recipe uses ginger powder to increase the probiotic content of the soaking water and hasten fermentation of the grains. The result is a 100% whole grain, gum-free, easily digestible, tender, delicious, sandwich bread.

1 ¼ cups brown rice flour

1 ¼ cups sorghum flour

1 ¼ cups millet flour

½  teaspoon organic, dried ginger powder

2 cups warm (about 100 degrees F) water

2/3 cup flax meal

1 teaspoon finely ground, unrefined sea salt

1 tablespoon whole cane, date, or palm sugar

1 teaspoon active dry yeast

2 tablespoons olive oil or ghee, plus more for greasing the pan

In a large glass or ceramic mixing bowl combine the brown rice flour, sorghum flour, millet flour, warm water, and ginger. Use a wooden spoon to mix until a smooth batter forms. Cover tightly with a non-reactive lid. Leave in a warm (75-80 degrees F) place overnight, about 12-24 hours.

Generously grease a standard (4 ½” x 8 ½ ” x 3”) glass loaf pan. Add the flax meal, salt, sugar, and yeast to the soaked flour mixture. Use a wooden spoon or the paddle attachment to stir the batter until a fluffy dough forms, about 2 minutes. Add the oil or ghee. Stir until it becomes fully incorporated, about 1 minute. Scoop the batter into the greased bread pan. Cover with a light (flour-sack style) towel or cloth napkin. Set to raise in a warm (75 -80 degrees F) place until even with the top of the pan, about 30-45 minutes.

Center the oven rack. Pre-heat the oven to 350 degrees F. Bake until slightly browned on top, about, 70-80 minutes. Remove the finished bread from the pan. Cool on a rack. Store tightly covered at room temperature if you plan to eat the bread over 1-2 days. Store tightly covered in the refrigerator up to 5 days. For longer storage wrap with wax paper, place in a freezer bag, and store in the freezer up to 2 weeks.

This post was shared on Fat Tuesday, Slightly Indulgent Tuesday & Real Food Wednesday!

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Nutrient-Dense Brown Rice

Makes 6 cups

The nutrients of whole-grain rice are locked-up, bound behind a protective barrier of phytic acid. Phytic acid preserves the nutrients of the grain, but also prevents the nutrients from being absorbed into the human body. Really, phytic acid is one of humanity’s great allies. It guards the grain and tries to ensure that the nutrients are used to sprout a new plant (a truly noble endeavor!). Traditional cultures around the world have found many ways to make whole-grains more advantageous and absorbable (sourdough is a well-known example). Through soaking and fermentation the noble nutrient protector (phytic acid) releases the nutrition of the grain and we are the benefactors!

This recipe combines my favorite techniques from a variety of sources: the recipe for Basic Brown Rice  II from Sally Fallon-Morell’s Nourishing Traditions, from an interview with Verta Mae Smart-Grosvennor, author of (among others) Vibrational Cooking: or The Travel Notes of a Geechee Girl, and a Spring 2010 Wise Traditions article, “Living with Phytic Acid: Preparing Grains, Nuts, Seeds, and Beans for Maximum Nutrition.” The result is that ach grain is separate, but still sticky enough to clump together and be easily eaten with chopsticks!

2 cups long-grain brown rice

3 ½ cups warm (about 100 degrees F), clean (well, spring or filtered) water, plus more for rinsing the rice

1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar, lemon juice, whey from cultured dairy,

or 2-3 tablespoons reserved soaking water from a previous batch of soaked rice (see cooks note)

Position a fine mesh colander over a large bowl of water. Add the rice to the colander. Scrub the rice between your hands until the water is very cloudy. Discard the water. Repeat scrubbing the rice and discarding the water twice more. (As you scrub, may I suggest you ponder the importance and uniqueness of each grain of rice.) Use the pot from a rice-cooker with a “brown rice” setting; or a medium, heavy-bottomed, sauce pan. Place the rice, 3 ½ cups of warm (about 100 degrees F) water, and apple cider vinegar (or, lemon juice, whey, or previous soaking water) in the pot or pan.

Cover tightly and store in a warm (75-80 degrees F) place for 16-48 hours (Rice requires a longer soaking time than other grains because it contains very little phytase, the enzyme needed to break-down phytic acid). Reserve 3 tablespoons of the soaking water for later use, add 3 tablespoons of water to replace the liquid (optional, see cooks note).

If using a rice-cooker, cook using the brown rice setting. When the cooker signals the end of its cycle, remove the cover and use a fork to lift and separate the grains of rice. Cover for an additional 15 minutes. Serve.

If using a sauce pan, heat over high until rapidly boiling, about 5-10 minutes. Cover and reduce the heat to low. Cook over low for 30 minutes. Remove the cover and use a fork to lift and separate the grains of rice. Cover for an additional 15 minutes. Serve.

Cooks Note:

Researchers have found that adding a small amount of reserved soaking water (from a previous batch) to be the most effective means of reducing and eliminating phytic acid. (Read the article “Living with Phytic Acid: Preparing Grains, Nuts, Seeds, and Beans for Maximum Nutrition” for more information.)

After the rice has soaked, and just before cooking, remove 3 tablespoons of the soaking water. Add back 3 tablespoons of water to replace the liquid. Store the liquid tightly covered in the refrigerator up to one month. Add the reserved soaking liquid to future batches of Nutrient-Dense Brown Rice or use for other soaked rice recipes.

This was shared on Fat TuesdaySlightly Indulgent Tuesday, and Real Food Wednesday.


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Soaked, peeled, and dehydrated almonds

Seeds and nuts are valued for their complex, earthy tastes and their nutritional density. Vitamin E, essential fatty acids, trace minerals, amino acids, and carbohydrates complement one-another in these sweet, sometimes-salty super-foods[1]. However, seeds and nuts can also be heavy and difficult to digest.  Fortunately, they can easily be prepared to enhance their digestibility. Their dense nutrients can become more absorbable.

All seeds and nuts contains enzyme inhibitors that bind with enzymes and hinder digestion.  When seeds and nuts are soaked overnight in plain or salted water these anti-nutrients can be minimized; and the nutrition of the nut is easier to absorb into the body. Leaving the soaking water unsalted initiates the sprouting process. As sprouting begins the fats and proteins take on a more digestible form. When sea salt is included in soaking water it activates enzymes and neutralizes the enzyme inhibitors.  After soaking, nuts and seeds are ready to be used as an ingredient in another dish, dehydrated (at slightly less than 150 degrees F), or roasted (at 200-250 degrees F).

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine sprouted and dehydrated, raw nuts and seeds are more cooling (or yin), while lightly salted and roasted nuts are more warming (or yang).[2] Even in the preparation of seemingly everyday foods we can observe seasonality and personal needs for cooling or warmth.

Today I am sharing recipes for my favorite seeds and nuts. The basic technique for preparing all of the seeds and nuts is similar, but each requires slightly unique approach. Detailed recipes follow this post.

This was shared on Real Food Wednesday.


[1] Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods (Berkley: North Atlantic, 2002),  531.

[2] Pitchford, 531.


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Soaking sunflower seeds and almonds

Flax Seeds

Makes about 3 tablespoons

Flax seeds are perhaps the most well-known plant source of the anti-inflammatory, health-promoting, and essential, omega-3 fatty acids. When prepared as called for in this recipe they are sweet, nutty, and easily chewable. I like to serve them over salads.

3 tablespoons flax seeds

1 cup clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

¼ teaspoon unrefined sea salt

Soak: 7-24 hours

Dehydrate: 12-24 hours

See further directions below

Pumpkin Seeds

Makes about 2 cups

Pumpkin seeds are excellent sources of B-vitamins, zinc, and fatty acids[1]. They are especially nourishing to the male reproductive system[2]. Always roast pumpkin seeds to remove any harmful bacteria on the surface of the seeds[3].

2 cups raw pumpkin seeds (hulls removed)

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Soak: 7-24 hours

Roast: 4-6 hours

See further directions below

Sesame Seeds

Makes about 3 tablespoons

Distinctly flavored and indispensable in world cuisine, sesame seeds are also rich in the anti-nutrient oxalic acid. This naturally occurring acid binds with calcium and other minerals (and prevents their absorption into the gut). Oxalic acid can contribute to the build-up of calcium-oxalate kidney stones[4]. Avoid them if you are prone to this problem. Otherwise, they should always be soaked, roasted, and preferably ground before eating.

3 tablespoons raw sesame seeds

1 cup clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

Soak: 7-24 hours

Roast: 2-4 hours (250 degrees F)

See further directions below

Sunflower Seeds

Makes about 2 cups

Among the most inexpensive of nuts and seeds, sunflower seeds are truly a nutritional bargain. They’re rich in protein, trace minerals, and the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic acid. I like to include them in trail mix with another more expensive nut like almonds.

2 cups raw sunflower seeds (hulls removed)

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Soak: 7-24 hours

Dehydrate: 12-24 hours

or

Roast: 4-6 hours

See further directions below

Soaked almonds, ready to dehydrated

Almonds

Makes about 2 cups

Almonds are unique among nuts. Perhaps it’s because they aren’t truly nuts, but the edible pit of a soft fruit (called a drupe) [5]. They’re like the stone of a peach or the pit of an olive, but contain an edible seed.  Almonds are the only ‘nut’ to alkalize – rather than acidify – the blood[6]. Their outer skins contain bitter medicinal compounds that can aid lung conditions. However, they should be removed for everyday eating,  as they can irritate the lining of the gut.[7]

After almonds are soaked in water overnight their skins are easy to remove. Use clean hands to rub the skins from the nuts. The results are worth the extra effort! The nuts are easy to digest, and have a sweet, full-bodied almond flavor.

2 cups raw almonds

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Soak: 12-24 hours

Peel

Dehydrate: 36-48 hours

Roast: 12-24 hours

See further directions below

Cashews

Makes about 2 cups

Raw cashews have been heated to 350 degrees F during processing to neutralize cardol, a toxic oil found between their inner and outer shells[8]. While this is necessary to make the nuts safe to eat, it also renders cashews un-sproutable. Nevertheless, purchase whole cashews, rather than pieces. They retain their freshness and the whole pieces are much easier to uniformly dehydrate or roast. Sea salt must be added to the soaking water. Cashews won’t sprout, so this only means of enhancing their digestibility.

2 cups whole, raw cashews

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt

Soak: 5-6 hours, no longer

Dehydrate: 36-48 hours or

Roast: 12-24 hours

See further directions below

Hazelnuts

Makes about 2 cups

Growing up, my family referred to the hazelnuts from our backyard tree as filberts. Both names are correct. The filbert is the type of hazelnut grown locally in the Pacific Northwest. They are over 40 % monounsaturated oleic acid[9], a stable fat that protects the nuts from rancidity. After roasting, the outer peelings can be removed by gently tossing the nuts in a towel.

2 cups raw hazelnuts (shells removed)

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Soak: 12-24 hours

Dehydrate: 36-48 hours

or

Roast: 12-24 hours

See further directions below

Pecans

Makes about 2 cups

Like hazelnuts, pecans are high in shelf-stable monounsaturated oleic acid. They are amazingly high in fat (over 70%) and are a good source of manganese[10].

2 cups whole, raw pecans (shells removed)

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Soak: 12-24 hours

Dehydrate: 24-36 hours

or

Roast: 6-12 hours

See further directions below

Walnuts

Makes about 2 cups

According to the Doctrine of Signatures (which states that the healing traits of an herb are marked by its appearance) walnuts – with their wrinkled, brain-like double-hemispheres – can improve mental function[11]. In fact, walnuts are high in the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)[12], which nourishes brain development and function[13].  This type of fatty acid is susceptible to rancidity, so walnuts should be stored in the refrigerator. Roast walnuts to kill any parasites in the nuts.

2 cups whole, raw walnuts (shells removed)

3 ½ cups clean (well, spring, or filtered) water

1 tablespoon unrefined sea salt (optional)

Roast: 4-6 hours

See further directions below

Cutting parchment paper liners for the dehydrator trays

Further Directions for Crispy Seeds and Nuts:

In a wide-mouth, mason jar or medium-sized non-reactive bowl combine the seeds or nuts, water, and unrefined salt (if desired or called for). Stir to dissolve the salt, about 1 minute. Cover loosely. Store at room temperature for the amount of time indicated above.

Use a fine mesh strainer to strain the soaking water from the seeds.  Line a dehydrator tray or rimmed sheet pan with parchment paper.  Spread the seeds evenly over the tray or pan. To keep raw, dehydrate at 130-145 degrees F. To roast, bake at 250 degrees F. stir the seeds or nuts 2-3 times while dehydrating or roasting. Dehydrate or roast until the seeds or nuts crunch between the teeth (the approximate time is indicated in the recipes above).

Store them tightly covered at room temperature for up to one month (flax seeds, sunflower seeds, and walnuts should be stored in the refrigerator).

This was shared on Real Food Wednesday.


[1] James F. Balch and Phyllis A. Balch, Prescription for Nutritional Healing (Garden City Park: Avery, 1997), 75.

[2] Balch and Balch, 452.

[3] Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods (Berkley: North Atlantic, 2002), 534.

[4] Balch and Balch, 361.

[5] “Drupe,” accessed May 29, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drupe.

[6] Pitchford, 532.

[7] Pitchford, 532.

[8] Sally Fallon, Nourishing Traditions (Washington: New Trends, 2001), 515.

[9] “Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts,” accessed 29 May, 2011, http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/nut-and-seed-products/3116/2.

[10] Fallon, 514.

[11] Penelope Ody, The Complete Medicinal Herbal (New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993), 19.

[12] Fallon, 513.

[13] Balch and Balch, 51.

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