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Posts Tagged ‘Fermented’

Gluten-Free Sourdough Challah Bread

Makes two loaves

Challah (pronounced HAH-lah) is the braided bread traditionally eaten on Jewish holidays and at Shabbat, the weekly Sabbath meal. The taste and texture, as well as symbolism, of this bread are rich and heavenly.

The three strands of the braid can mean truth, peace, and justice; and the twists of the braid can signify our intertwining love for one another. Seeds sprinkled over the loaf are a reminder of the manna – sprinkled down from heaven – during the Israelite’s 40 years of wandering. Two loaves represent the double measure provided in preparation for the Sabbath.

This gluten-free sourdough version is inspired by Sandor Katz’ recipe for Sourdough Challah Bread in his book Wild Fermentation. It’s excellent sopped in extra-virgin olive oil and a balsamic vinegar.

1 cup mature Gluten-Free Natural Levain Starter Culture

1 cup whole coconut milk, at room temperature

3 large eggs, lightly beaten

2 ½ cups tapioca flour, plus more for rolling out the dough

2 cups arrowroot powder

¼ cup whole cane, date, or palm sugar

1 tablespoon, plus 1 teaspoon xanthan gum

1 ½ teaspoons unrefined sea salt, finely ground

¼ cup sunflower oil or extra-virgin olive oil, plus more for oiling the pan

1 large egg, lightly beaten (for the glaze)

1 tablespoon poppy seeds or sesame seeds (or a mixture of poppy and sesame seeds)

In a large mixing bowl combine the mature starter, coconut milk, and eggs. Whisk until combined. In a medium bowl combine the tapioca flour, arrowroot powder, sugar, xanthan gum, and sea salt. Add the flour mixture by the cupful to the starter mixture. Use a wooden spoon or the dough hook to mix until each addition of flour is fully incorporated. Continue to mix until a sticky dough forms, about 2 minutes. Slowly add the oil. Continue to mix until all of the oil is incorporated into the dough, about 2 more minutes.

Line a cookie sheet or jelly roll pan with parchment paper.  Lightly oil the paper. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured work surface. Use a bench scraper or knife to cut the dough into 6 equal pieces.  Using floured hands, gently roll and form each piece of dough into a strand about 14 inches long and slightly tapered at each end.

Place 3 strands onto the lined cookie sheet. Braid the strands of dough by starting in the middle. Braid the first end by gently lifting alternating strands to the center of the braid. Use your entire hand to support the dough. Next, braid the opposite end. Move alternating strands to the center of the braid by braiding in reverse (underhanded). (Pass alternating outside strands under the center strand.) Pinch together and fold under the ends. Repeat with the other 3 strands of dough. Separate the loaves by 2-3 inches on the pan.

The right side of this loaf is braided in reverse (underhanded).

Set in a warm (about 75 degrees F) place to rise until puffed by 1-2 inches, about 2-3 hours.

Center the oven rack. Pre-heat the oven to 425 degrees F.  Brush the tops of the challah with the beaten egg. Sprinkle with poppy or sesame seeds. Bake for 20-25 minutes until golden brown on the top. Remove from the pan. Cool on a rack. Serve immediately or store tightly covered in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.

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Gluten-Free, Sourdough Pita Bread

Makes 8

I’m truly delighted by these little, gluten-free, sourdough flat breads. They puff-up when baked, they’re perfect for pocket sandwiches, and they’re wonderful with hummus!

2 cups mature Gluten-Free Natural Levain Starter Culture

½ cup warm (about 100 degrees F), well, spring, or filtered water

1 ½ cups tapioca flour, plus more for rolling out the dough

1 tablespoon honey

1 tablespoon chia seeds

2 teaspoons xanthan gum

1 ½ cups sorghum flour

1 ½ teaspoons whole, unrefined sea salt

1 teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil

In a large bowl combine the mature starter, warm water, honey, chia seeds, and xanthan gum. Whisk until evenly combined, about 2 minutes. Add ½ cup of the sorghum flour and ½ cup of the tapioca flour at a time. Use a wooden spoon or the dough hook to mix incorporated. Add 1 teaspoon of olive oil. Mix until the oil has been absorbed into the dough, about 1 more minute. Scrape the dough into a ball. Lightly oil the mixing bowl. Turn the dough in the bowl to coat in the oil. Cover tightly. Set to rise in a warm (about 75 degrees F) place for 2 ½-3 hours, until nearly doubled in bulk.

Center the oven rack. Place a cookie sheet or jelly-roll pan in the cold oven. Preheat the oven to 500 degrees F. Use a bench scraper or chef’s knife to cut the dough into eight equal portions. Lightly flour your hands, a work surface, and a rolling pin.  Form the dough into a ball. Flatten and roll into a round that is ¼-inch to 3/8-inch thick and about 6-inches in diameter.

Bake 3-4 breads per batch on the hot cookie sheet. After 3 minutes remove from the oven. Flip each bread. Use the flat side of a metal spatula to press down all of the bubbles in the pita (this actually helps the bubbles to expand). Return to the oven. Bake until puffy and barely browned, about 3-4 more minutes. Stack hot pita breads and wrap in a kitchen towel. This will keep them moist and warm for up to one hour. Serve while still warm. Store cooled pita tightly covered in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.

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Streusel-Topped, Gluten-Free, Sourdough Coffee Cake

When:

Wednesday May 2, 2012; 6-7:30 p.m.

What:

Gluten-Free Sourdough Baking: How to Use Traditional Techniques with Gluten-Free Flours

Join me  for an evening of demonstrations, samples, and discussion. Learn to make your own sourdough starter, maintain an ongoing starter culture, and use it to leaven breads, cakes, and more! (Bring a small jar with a lid to take home your own starter.)

Where:

People’s Food Co-Op – In the Community Room

Everyone is Welcome!

3029 SE 21st Avenue

Portland, Oregon

Cost:

Free

Please call the People’s Co-Op to register, 503-674-2642.

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When:

Wednesday May 2, 2012; 6-7:30 p.m.

What:

Gluten-Free Sourdough Baking: How to Use Traditional Techniques with Gluten-Free Flours

Join me  for an evening of demonstrations, samples, and discussion. Learn to make your own sourdough starter, maintain an ongoing starter culture, and use it to leaven breads, cakes, and more! (Bring a small jar with a lid to take home your own starter.)

Where:

People’s Food Co-Op – In the Community Room

Everyone is Welcome!

Gluten-free natural levain starter

3029 SE 21st Avenue

Portland, Oregon

Cost:

Free

Please call the People’s Co-Op to register, 503-674-2642.

Links to some of the techniques & recipes featured in the class:

Gluten-Free Natural Levain (Natural Leaven, Sourdough) Starter Culture

Artisan Sourdough Bread Recipe, Gluten-Free 

Gluten-Free Sourdough Coffee Cake Recipe

Gluten-Free Sourdough Pancakes

Upcoming Free Event at People’s Co-Op:

Wednesday July 11, 6-7:30

Fermented Drinks: How to Make Refreshing, Probiotic Tonics

Beet Kvass

Learn to make kombucha tea, beet kvass, and a lacto-fermented fruit juice. These drinks are inexpensive, nutritious, and easy to make in your own kitchen!

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Flower Power Kombucha

Makes 2 ½  quarts

This combination of fragrant, uplifting, and naturally sweet flowers is the perfect tonic for spring. Rose petals soothe and relax; St. John’s Wort is detoxifies the liver; red clover purifies the blood; and chrysanthemum is anti-inflammatory and aids digestion. (See cooks notes for contraindications for these herbs.)

Before you make herbal kombucha set aside a mother mushroom that has not been in contact with herbal brew. The addition of herbs may change the composition of bacteria and yeast in the s.c.o.b.y.. Discard any mother or daughter mushrooms that have been in herbal teas or use them to culture future batches of herbal brews (but not regular brews (see cooks note)). If you are making kombucha to maximize the specific health benefits that are associated with the tea please follow the recipe for 5-Step Kombucha.

3 quarts clean water (well, spring, or filtered)

1 cup evaporated cane juice (preferably organic and fairly traded)

3 tablespoons organic rose petals

1 tablespoon St. John’s Wort blossoms and leaves

1 tablespoon red clover blossoms, about 3 large

1 tablespoon chrysanthemum blossoms, about 3 large

1 tablespoon organic green tea

½ cup finished kombucha or ¼ cup apple cider vinegar

1 kombucha mushroom (s.c.o.b.y.)

1.            Bring one quart of the water to a boil. Pour the water into a one-gallon heat safe glass bowl or jar. Add the sugar and stir until dissolved. Add the herbs and tea to a muslin spice bag, or oversized tea bag. Steep the mixture for as little as 15 minutes, or until the tea is cool. Remove the tea bag. Add the remaining 2 quarts of water.

2.            Add ½ cup kombucha from a previous batch or ¼ cup apple cider vinegar (this acidifies the tea and prevents contamination from other microorganisms). Place the mushroom dark side down in the liquid.

3.            If you are using a bowl cross several strips of masking tape over the top (to keep the cover from falling into the liquid). Cover with a cloth or paper towel. Secure the cover tightly with a string or rubber band (insects may be attracted and must be kept out!). Label with the date made. Store in a warm, well-ventilated place, out of direct sunlight.

4.            Depending upon the room temperature, the kombucha will be ready after 6-12 days. Kombucha is ready to drink when it looks relatively translucent and a ‘baby’ kombucha mushroom has formed above the mother. It will cease tasting of tea. Most people prefer kombucha sweet to pleasingly tart. After it has fermented about one week taste it daily. When the flavor suits your taste, bottle the tea.

5.            To bottle kombucha, remove the mother and the baby mushroom from the brew. Use a funnel and glass jars or bottles with tightly fitting lids (or flip-top bottles). Fill the jars to the top. Place a sheet of wax paper underneath the lid. (The paper prevents the acidic kombucha from contacting the lid.) Store in the refrigerator.

To restore effervescence to chilled kombucha, remove from the refrigerator for 15 minutes. Strain the tea just before serving.

Cooks note:

The mother and baby mushroom can be separated and used to make additional batches of flower power or other herbal kombuchas. Don’t use them for regular kombucha because the balance of bacteria and yeast within the s.c.o.b.y. may be altered.

Don’t use rose petals if you are pregnant. Don’t use chrysanthemum if you have a known allergy to ragweed. Don’t use St. John’s Wort if you are pregnant or nursing, or if you take any of the following medications: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, irinotecan, and imatinib mesylate, protease inhibitors, or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Don’t use red clover if you are pregnant or nursing, taking oral contraception, estrogen or progesterone therapies.

This post was shared at Real Food Forager’s Fat Tuesday, Kelly the Kitchen Kop’s Real Food Wednesday, and Nourishing Gourmet’s Pennywise platter Thursday blog hop.

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Herbal Super-Foods Smoothie

Makes 3 ½ cups

Berries, homemade kefir, and an abundance of locally-grown and organic super-foods – it’s my favorite way to start the day!

1 ½ cups high-quality kefir

2 large egg yolks, from pastured hens (optional)

1 tablespoon local, organic bee pollen

1 tablespoon roasted dandelion root powder, see cooks note

1 ½ teaspoons nettle powder, see cooks note

1 cup frozen strawberries

1 cup frozen blueberries

1 large, fair-trade, organic banana

3 tablespoons organic flax meal (freshly ground flax seeds)

3 tablespoons organic, extra-virgin coconut oil

In the pitcher of a blender combine the kefir, optional egg yolks, bee pollen, nettle powder, and roasted dandelion powder. Blend on low until the powders are fully incorporated. Add the strawberries, blueberries, banana, and flax meal. Pulse on high until the fruit is fully incorporated. You may need to scrape down the sides of the pitcher and push the fruit towards the blade.

In a small saucepan, over low heat, warm  the coconut oil until just melted, about 1 minute. With the blender running on low, slowly pour the coconut oil into the pitcher. Blend until the oil is fully incorporated, about one minute. Serve immediately or store tightly covered in the refrigerator for up to one day.

Cooks note:

Dandelion root can be harvested from your backyard or garden and roasted quite readily. However, it is nearly impossible to grind into a fine powder without industrial grinding equipment. For this smoothie I recommend purchasing organic, ground, roasted dandelion from a reputable herb purveyor (like The Herb Shoppe in Portland and Brooklyn or Mountain Rose Herbs online).

Gathering wild stinging nettles and drying them at home is simple and quite rewarding (if you’re into it!). The best way to learn is always from someone else who has knowledge of the herb. Otherwise, purchase organic nettle leaf from a reputable herb purveyor (like The Herb Shoppe or Mountain Rose Herbs) or purchase wildcrafted nettles in the market and dry them at home. Grind dried nettle leaf in a clean coffee grinder until it is reduced to powder, about 30-60 seconds.

Click here for my Kefir Recipe.

This recipe was shared at the Real Food Forager’s Fat Tuesday blog carnival, at Simply Sugar & Gluten-Free’s Slightly Indulgent Tuesday, at Kelly the Kitchen Kop’s Real Food Wednesday, at Mind, Body, and Sole’s Wildcrafting Wednesday, and at Recipe Lion’s Favorite Spring Recipe Share.

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Gluten-Free Third Bread

Makes 1 loaf

This bread is made with a combination of three, whole-grain, gluten-free flours – thus each flour is one-third of the bread!  Soaking the flours overnight increases the digestibility (and palatability) of the whole grains. This recipe uses ginger powder to increase the probiotic content of the soaking water and hasten fermentation of the grains. The result is a 100% whole grain, gum-free, easily digestible, tender, delicious, sandwich bread.

1 ¼ cups brown rice flour

1 ¼ cups sorghum flour

1 ¼ cups millet flour

½  teaspoon organic, dried ginger powder

2 cups warm (about 100 degrees F) water

2/3 cup flax meal

1 teaspoon finely ground, unrefined sea salt

1 tablespoon whole cane, date, or palm sugar

1 teaspoon active dry yeast

2 tablespoons olive oil or ghee, plus more for greasing the pan

In a large glass or ceramic mixing bowl combine the brown rice flour, sorghum flour, millet flour, warm water, and ginger. Use a wooden spoon to mix until a smooth batter forms. Cover tightly with a non-reactive lid. Leave in a warm (75-80 degrees F) place overnight, about 12-24 hours.

Generously grease a standard (4 ½” x 8 ½ ” x 3”) glass loaf pan. Add the flax meal, salt, sugar, and yeast to the soaked flour mixture. Use a wooden spoon or the paddle attachment to stir the batter until a fluffy dough forms, about 2 minutes. Add the oil or ghee. Stir until it becomes fully incorporated, about 1 minute. Scoop the batter into the greased bread pan. Cover with a light (flour-sack style) towel or cloth napkin. Set to raise in a warm (75 -80 degrees F) place until even with the top of the pan, about 30-45 minutes.

Center the oven rack. Pre-heat the oven to 350 degrees F. Bake until slightly browned on top, about, 70-80 minutes. Remove the finished bread from the pan. Cool on a rack. Store tightly covered at room temperature if you plan to eat the bread over 1-2 days. Store tightly covered in the refrigerator up to 5 days. For longer storage wrap with wax paper, place in a freezer bag, and store in the freezer up to 2 weeks.

This post was shared on Fat Tuesday, Slightly Indulgent Tuesday & Real Food Wednesday!

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